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Introduction to Instrumentation Definition – Basic principles of measurement – Measurement systems, Generalized configuration and functional description of measuring instruments – Examples. Static and dynamic performance characteristics – Source of errors, Classification and elimination of errors. Measurement of Displacement Theory and construction of various transducers to measure displacement – Piezo electric, Inductive, Capacitance, Resistance, Ionization and photo electric transducers, Calibration procedures
Measurement of Temperature Various principles of measurement – Classification: Expansion type: Bimetallic strip – Liquid in glass thermometer: Electrical resistance type: Thermistor, Thermocouple, RTD: Radiation Pyrometry: Optical pyrometer: Changes in chemical phase: Fusible indicators and liquid crystals. Measurement of Pressure Different principles used- Classification: Manometers, Dead weight pressure gauge, Tester ( Piston gauge), Bourdon pressure gauges, Bulk modulus pressure gauges Bellows – Diaphragm gauges. Low pressure measurement – Thermal conductivity gauges – Ionization pressure gauges, Mcleod pressure gauge.
Measurement of Level Direct methods – Indirect methods – Capacitive, Radioactive, Ultrasonic, Magnetic, Cryogenic fuel level indicators – Bubbler level indicators. Flow Measurement Rotameter, Magnetic, Ultrasonic, Turbine flow meter, Hot-wire anemometer, Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA). Measurement of Speed Mechanical tachometers – Electrical tachometers – Non-contact type-Stroboscope Measurement of Acceleration and Vibration Different simple instruments – Principles of seismic instruments – Vibrometer and accelerometer using this principle-Piezo electric accelerometer.
Stress Strain Measurements Various types of stress and strain measurements – Selection and installation of metallic strain gauges-Electrical strain gauge – Gauge factor – Method of usage of resistance strain gauge for beading compressive and tensile strains – Temperature compensation techniques – Use of strain gauges for measuring torque – Strain gauge Rosettes. Syllabus Measurement of Humidity Moisture content of gases, Sling psychrometer – Absorption psychrometer, Dew point meter. Measurement of Force, Torque and Power Elastic force meters, Load cells, Torsion meters, Dynamometers.
Elements of Control Systems Introduction, Importance – Classification – Open and closed systems – Servomechanisms – Examples with block diagrams – Temperature, speed and position control systems – Transfer functions – First and second order mechanical systems
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